# Mathematics

**Math 7A:** This is the first class in the accelerated math program. All basic skills are reviewed and perfected in the course “A” program. An in depth approach to advanced abstract thinking is used in the problem solving area. Initial placement in the program is generally done by teacher recommendation and standardized test scores. Each of these occurs one year in advance to the norm, provided there is a successful completion of each individual course.

**Math 7:** Seventh grade mathematics is about (1) developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships; (2) developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations; (3) solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and working with two- and three-dimensional shapes to solve problems involving area, surface area, and volume; and (4) drawing inferences about populations based on samples.

**Math 8:** Eighth grade mathematics is about (1) formulating and reasoning about expressions and equations, including modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation, and solving linear equations and systems of linear equations; (2) grasping the concept of a function and using functions to describe quantitative relationships; (3) analyzing two- and three-dimensional space and figures using distance, angle, similarity, and congruence, and understanding and applying the Pythagorean Theorem.

**Algebra (Common Core):** The fundamental purpose of the Common Core Algebra 1 Course is to formalize and extend the mathematics that students learned in the middle grades. The course is built on the middle grades standards and is a more ambitious version of Algebra I than has generally been offered. The focus of the course is to deepen and extend understanding of linear and exponential relationships by contrasting them with each other and by applying linear models to data that exhibit a linear trend. Students also engage in methods for analyzing, solving, and using quadratic functions. The Mathematical Practice Standards apply throughout the course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations. (Full year, 1.0 credit)

**Geometry Foundations:** This course is designed to teach students fundamental geometry skills critical for success in Geometry. Students will develop the ability to solve problems involving angles, segment, arcs, congruent triangles, similar triangles, special quadrilaterals, parallel lines, circles, area, volume, transformations, and right triangle trigonometry. Students will have a local final at the end of the course. (Full year, 1.0 credit)

**Geometry (Common Core):** This course formalizes what students have learned about geometry in the middle grades, with a focus on reasoning and making mathematical arguments. Mathematical reasoning is introduced with a study of triangle congruency, including exposure to formal proofs, and geometric constructions. Then students extend what they have learned to other essential triangle concepts, including similarity, right triangle trigonometry, and the Laws of Sines and Cosines. Moving on to other shapes, students justify and derive various formulas for circumference, area, and volume, as well as cross-sections of solids and rotations of two-dimensional objects. Students then make important connections between geometry and algebra, including special triangles, slopes of parallel and perpendicular lines, and parabolas in the coordinate plane, before delving into an in-depth investigation of the geometry of circles. A Regents Exam culminates this full-year, 1.0 credit course.

**Algebra 2 Foundations:** This course is designed to prepare students for Algebra 2 (Common Core). Students will review and build on Algebra 1 topics, as well as focus on the most important topics of Algebra 2 (Common Core). These topics will include polynomial, rational, and radical relationships, real numbers, sequences and series, probability, and model data distributions. Students will have a local final at the end of the course. (Full year, 1.0 credit)

**Algebra 2 (Common Core):** The purpose of this course is to satisfy the Algebra II requirement of the Common Core Mathematics Standards. This upper level course fits into an overall program of mathematics studies with a rigorous academic core by extending what students have learned in the introductory level mathematics courses as well as introducing more advanced topics. The course culminates with the NYS Regents Examination which a student must receive a passing score to obtain an Advanced Regents Diploma. These advanced topics based on the modules include: polynomial, rational, and radical relationships, the story of trigonometry and its contexts, real numbers, logarithms, exponential and logarithmic functions and graphs, sequence and series, probability, model data distributions, drawing conclusions and using data. (Full year, 1.0 credit)

**Algebra Common Core IA:** The fundamental purpose of this course is to formalize and extend the mathematics that students learned in the middle grades. In the first year of the Algebra Extended courses we look at the first two Common Core modules. The modules deepen and extend understanding of linear and exponential relationships by contrasting them with each other and by applying linear models to data that exhibit a linear trend, and students engage in methods for analyzing, solving, and using quadratic functions. The Mathematical Practice Standards apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations. (Full year, 1.0 credit)

**Algebra Common Core IB:** The fundamental purpose of this course is to formalize and extend the mathematics that students learned in the middle grades. In the first year of the Algebra Extended courses, we look at the last three Common Core modules. The modules deepen and extend understanding of linear and exponential relationships by contrasting them with each other and by applying linear models to data that exhibit a linear trend, and students engage in methods for analyzing, solving, and using quadratic functions. The Mathematical Practice Standards apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations. A Regents Exam culminates this full-year, 1.0 credit course.

**Pre-Calculus:** This course covers many topics at a more advanced level than previous math courses. The objective is to prepare the student for his or her first calculus course. Topics taught in this course include: Advanced Algebra, Matrix Algebra, Analytic Geometry, and an introduction to differential and integral Calculus. (Full year, 1.0 credit)

**AP Calculus AB:** This course is designed for accelerated students with strong mathematical backgrounds. The material covered in this course is comparable to two semesters of calculus at most colleges and universities. The major topics of study will include limits, differentiation, and integration. These topics will be studied from many different aspects, including general theorems, abstract problems, and real world applications. A graphing calculator is required for this course. Students should see the instructor regarding specific models. Students are also required to take the AP examination in May. (Full year, 1.0 credit)

**Statistics:** This math course for juniors or seniors may be taken for college credit through GCC. This is a basic statistics course which will provide a study of the practice of statistics with regard to the need for data, the importance of data production, the omnipresence of variability and the measuring and modeling of variability. Many applications will be given ranging from problems in business, sports, health, architecture, education, entertainment, political science, psychology, travel, and leisure, just to name a few. Projects will be given. Technology including the use of Excel and the TI-84 Plus calculator will be utilized. Calculators will be provided for class; however, students will need to purchase one for assignments given outside of class. (Full year, 1.0 credit)

**Applied Math:** High school graduates need more mathematics than ever before, and they need to know how to use quantitative reasoning, statistical reasoning, and modeling tools to solve problems in applied situations. This project-based course engages students in relevant problems and prepares them for higher education and the workplace, emphasizing statistics, quantitative reasoning, modeling, and financial applications. It prepares students to use a variety of mathematical tools and approaches to model a range of situations and solve problems. (Full year, 1.0 credit)